Maailman vesipäivä on Yhdistyneiden kansakuntien julistama vuosipäivä, ja sitä on vietetty 22. maaliskuuta vuodesta 1993 alkaen. Kampanjan tarkoituksena on lisätä tietoisuutta puhtaan veden tärkeydestä sekä veden määrästä ja laadusta koko maapalolla. Tämän vuoden teemana on vesiyhteistyö.
World Water Day is held annually on 22 March as a means of focusing attention on the importance of freshwater and advocating for the sustainable management of freshwater resources. The United Nations General Assembly responded by designating 22 March 1993 as the first World Water Day.
Vesijalanjälkeen, virtuaaliseen veteen ja valtioiden rajat ylittävään vesien hoitoon ja hallintaan liittyvää sähköistä kirjallisuutta:
Online exhibition of electronic literature is listed below. The main themes are water footprint, virtual water, and transboundary water management:
Future of Water : A Startling Look Ahead
Author: Maxwell, Steve Yates, Scott
Publisher: American Water Works Association
Original Publication Date: 2011
Subjects: Water resources development. Sustainable development. Climatic changes -- Environmental aspects.
Climate Change and Water : International Prespectives on Mitigation and Adaptation
Author: Smith, Joel
Publisher: American Water Works Assoc.
Original Publication Date: 2009
Subjects: Water-supply -- Environmental aspects. Water resources development -- Environmental aspects. Water utilities -- Management. Climatic changes -- Government policy -- International cooperation.
Engineering Solutions for Sustainability : Materials and Resources
Author: John Wiley & Sons
Original Publication Date: 09/2011
Subjects: Sustainable engineering. Environmental engineering.
Dry Run : Preventing the Next Urban Water Crisis
Author: Yudelson, Jerry
Publisher: New Society Publishers
Original Publication Date: 07/2010
Subjects: Municipal water supply. Water conservation projects. Water efficiency.
Water Centric Sustainable Communities : Planning, Retrofitting and Building the Next Urban Environment
Author: Novotny, Vladimir Ahearn, John Brown, Paul
Original Publication Date: 09/2010
Subjects: Municipal water supply. Water resources development. Sustainable development. Urban runoff -- Management. Watershed management.
Politics of Water : A Survey
Author: Trottier, Julie
Original Publication Date: 04/2008
Subjects: Water-supply -- Political aspects. Water-supply -- International cooperation. Water-supply -- Government policy.
Sustainable and Resilient Communities : A Comprehensive Action Plan for Towns, Cities, and Regions
Author: Coyle, Stephen J.
Original Publication Date: 05/2011
Subjects: City planning -- Environmental aspects. Regional planning -- Environmental aspects. Community development, Urban -- Environmental aspects. Sustainable urban development. Sustainable development.
International Studies in Human Rights, Volume 97 : Freshwater Access from a Human Rights Perspective : A Challenge to International Water and Human Rights Law
Author: Bourquain, Knut
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Original Publication Date: 2008
Subjects: Human rights. Fresh water -- Law and legislation.
Enhancing Participation and Governance in Water Resources Management : Conventional Approaches and Information Technology
Author: Jansky, Libor Uitto, Juha I.
Publisher: United Nations University Press
Original Publication Date: 12/2005
Subjects: Water-supply -- Management. Water resources development. Information technology.
Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects : Findings and Recommendations
Author: Hirji, Rafik Davis, Richard
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Original Publication Date: 06/2009
Subjects: Water resources development -- Environmental aspects. Water-supply -- Management. Integrated water development. Environmental policy.
International Water Security
Author: Pachova, Nevelina I. Jansky, Libor
Publisher: United Nations University Press
Original Publication Date: 03/2008
Subjects: Water-supply -- Management -- Political aspects. Water resources development -- International cooperation. Integrated water development.
International Library of Political Studies : Flood Planning : The Politics of Water Security
Author: Warner, Jeroen
Publisher: I.B. Tauris
Original Publication Date: 02/2011
Subjects: Flood control. Flood control -- Political aspects.
Water and Sanitation-Related Diseases and the Environment : Challenges, Interventions, and Preventive Measures
Author: Selendy, Janine M. H.
Original Publication Date: 10/2011
Subjects: Waterborne infection. Water -- Purification.
Artikkelit / Articles:
1. Virtual water accounting for the globalized world economy: National water footprint and international virtual water trade Original Research Article Ecological Indicators, Volume 28, May 2013, Pages 142-149 Zhan-Ming Chen, G.Q. Chen.
2. A review on the indicator water footprint for the EU28 Review Article Ecological Indicators, Volume 26, March 2013, Pages 61-75 Davy Vanham, Giovanni Bidoglio
3. Model-based evaluation of ecological bank design and management in the scope of the European Water Framework Directive Original Research Article
Ecological Engineering, Volume 53, April 2013, Pages 144-152
Gert Everaert, Ine S. Pauwels, Pieter Boets, Edwin Verduin, Michelle A.A. de la Haye, Ciska Blom, Peter L.M. Goethals
4. Bridging decision networks for integrated water and energy planning Original Research Article
Energy Strategy Reviews, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 13 March 2013
Afreen Siddiqi, Arani Kajenthira, Laura Díaz Anadón
► Planned large-scale desalination (of 500 MCM) will require 10–12% increase in current energy generation in Jordan. ► Development of oil-shale in Jordan will impose new water requirements in a water scarce region. ► Increased efficiency in agriculture and municipal wastewater reuse can help meet new water demands in industry. ► International agencies and ministry of planning can bridge decision making for integrated resource planning.
5. Towards a new paradigm for transboundary water governance: Implementing regional frameworks through local actions Original Research Article
Ocean & Coastal Management, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 13 November 2012
Sulan Chen, John C. Pernetta, Alfred M. Duda
► Failure to link local communities and regional programmes forms a management dilemma. ► A mechanism for engaging local communities in achieving regional targets is outlined. ► 31 small grant contributions to regional targets in the South China Sea, documented. ► Small scale activities are found to contribute significantly to regional targets. ► A new paradigm of “polycentric” transboundary water governance is proposed.
6. Water footprint: Help or hindrance?
Author: Chapagain, Ashok Kumar; Tickner, David
Publication info: Water Alternatives 5. 3 (Oct 2012): 563-581.
Abstract: In response to increasing concerns about pressures on global water resources, researchers have developed a range of water footprint concepts and tools. These have been deployed for a variety of purposes by businesses, governments and NGOs. A debate has now emerged about the value, and the shortcomings of using water footprint tools to support better water resources management. This paper tracks the evolution of the water footprint concept from its inception in the 1990s and reviews major applications of water footprint tools, including those by the private sector. The review suggests that water footprint assessments have been an effective means of raising awareness of global water challenges among audiences 'outside the water box' including decision makers in industry and government. Water footprint applications have also proved to be useful for the assessment of strategic corporate risks relating to water scarcity and pollution. There is evidence that these applications may help to motivate economically important stakeholders to contribute to joint efforts to mitigate shared water-related risks, although there have been few examples to date of such approaches leading to tangible improvements in water resources management at the local and river basin scales. Water footprint assessments have so far had limited influence on the development or implementation of improved public policy for water resources management and there is reason to believe that water footprint approaches may be a distraction in this context. Suggestions that international trade and economic development frameworks might be amended in light of global water footprint assessments have not yet been articulated coherently. Nevertheless, if used carefully, water footprint tools could contribute to better understanding of the connections between water use, economic development, business practice and social and environmental risks. In light of the review, a set of 'golden rules' is suggested for using water footprint tools in the broader context of awareness-raising, management of shared water-related risks and public policy development.
7. Integrated carbon footprint and cost evaluation of a drinking water infrastructure system for screening expansion alternatives
Author: Qi, Cheng; Chang, Ni-Bin
Publication info: Journal of Cleaner Production 27 (May 1, 2012): 51-63.
Abstract: Over the past decades, the cost-effectiveness principle or a cost-benefit analysis has typically been employed as an assessment tool for the expansion of drinking water utilities. With changing public awareness of the inherent linkages between greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, the addition of this new consideration in the assessment regime has altered the landscape of the traditional evaluation matrix. This paper presents a comparative evaluation based on a suite of carbon footprint and cost data associated with 20 expansion alternatives for a systematic priority analysis of a drinking water infrastructure system in South Florida.
8. The carbon footprint of water management policy options
Author: Shrestha, Eleeja; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, JacimariaR
Publication info: Energy Policy 42 (Mar 2012): 201.
Abstract: The growing concerns of global warming and climate change have forced water providers to scrutinize the energy for water production and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with it. A system dynamics model is developed to estimate the energy requirements to move water from the water source to the distribution laterals of the Las Vegas Valley and to analyze the carbon footprint associated with it. The results show that at present nearly 0.85 million megawatt hours per year (MWh/y) energy is required for conveyance of water in distribution laterals of the Valley from Lake Mead resulting in approximately 0.53 million metric tons of CO2 emissions per year. Considering the current mix of fuel source, the energy and CO2 emissions will increase to 1.34 million MWh/y and 0.84 million metric tons per year, respectively, by the year 2035. Various scenarios including change in population growth rate, water conservation, increase in water reuse, change in the Lake level, change in fuel sources, change in emission rates, and combination of multiple scenarios are analyzed to study their impact on energy requirements and associated CO2 emissions.
9. Towards a common carbon footprint assessment methodology for the water sector
Author: Frijns, Jos; 1; 1KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands
Publication info: Water and Environment Journal 26. 1 (Mar 2012): 63-69.
Abstract: This paper describes the carbon footprint methodology used in assessing the global warming potential of the Dutch water sector. The assessment includes CO2 emissions from energy consumption and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from water treatment processes. There is, however, debate on the amounts and mechanism of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and a standardised approach is discussed. As a result of this approach, the contribution of GHG emissions to the total carbon footprint of the Dutch water sector appeared to be relatively high. Next to the lack of common emission factors for GHG and chemicals used, there is also no agreed-upon approach related to the system boundaries and scope of carbon footprinting of the water cycle. For reasons of benchmarking and monitoring of climate change reduction targets, a common carbon footprint assessment methodology for the water sector will be required.
10. The water footprint of humanity
Author: Hoekstra, A Y; 1; Mekonnen, M M; 1Department of Water Engineering and Management, University of Twente, P
Publication info: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 109. 9 (Feb 28, 2012): 3232-3237.
Abstract: This study quantifies and maps the water footprint (WF) of humanity at a high spatial resolution. It reports on consumptive use of rainwater (green WF) and ground and surface water (blue WF) and volumes of water polluted (gray WF). Water footprints are estimated per nation from both a production and consumption perspective. International virtual water flows are estimated based on trade in agricultural and industrial commodities. The global annual average WF in the period 1996-2005 was 9,087 Gm super(3)/y (74% green, 11% blue, 15% gray). Agricultural production contributes 92%. About one-fifth of the global WF relates to production for export. The total volume of international virtual water flows related to trade in agricultural and industrial products was 2,320 Gm super(3)/y (68% green, 13% blue, 19% gray). The WF of the global average consumer was 1,385 m super(3)/y. The average consumer in the United States has a WF of 2,842 m super(3)/y, whereas the average citizens in China and India have WFs of 1,071 and 1,089 m super(3)/y, respectively. Consumption of cereal products gives the largest contribution to the WF of the average consumer (27%), followed by meat (22%) and milk products (7%). The volume and pattern of consumption and the WF per ton of product of the products consumed are the main factors determining the WF of a consumer. The study illustrates the global dimension of water consumption and pollution by showing that several countries heavily rely on foreign water resources and that many countries have significant impacts on water consumption and pollution elsewhere.
11. Towards Quantification of the Water Footprint of Paper: A First Estimate of its Consumptive Component
Author: Oel, PR; 1; Hoekstra, A Y; 1University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication info: Water Resources Management 26. 3 (Feb 2012): 733-749.
Abstract: For a hardcopy of this article, printed in the Netherlands, an estimated 100 l of water have been used. Most of the water is required in the forestry stage, due to evapotranspiration (green and blue water). In addition, the water footprint during the industrial stage, as accounted for in this study, consists of evaporation from water obtained from ground water and surface water (blue water). In this study estimates are made of water requirements for producing paper using different types of wood and in different parts of the world. The water footprint of printing and writing paper is estimated to be between 300 and 2600 m super(3)/t (~2-13 l for an A4 sheet). These estimates account for paper recovery rates in different countries. This study indicates that by using recovered paper for the production of paper the global average water footprint of paper is only 60% of what it would be if no recovered paper would be used at all. Further savings may be achieved by increasing the recovery percentages worldwide. In addition, the global water footprint of paper can be reduced by choosing production sites and wood types that are more water-efficient. The results of this study suggest that the use of recovered paper may be particularly effective in reducing water footprints. This study is a first step towards a better understanding of the significance of the water footprint of paper and the effect of using recovered paper.
12. The Ins and Outs of Water Use - A Review of Multi-Region Input-Output Analysis and Water Footprints for Regional Sustainability Analysis and Policy
Author: Daniels, Peter L; 1; Lenzen, Manfred; Kenway, Steven J; 1School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia
Publication info: Economic Systems Research 23. 4 (Dec 2011): 353-370.
Abstract: This paper reviews current knowledge about water footprints (WFs) and the role of input-output techniques. We first provide an overview of the prevailing 'bottom-up', process-based methods and their strengths and limitations. This overview leads to discussion of the benefits of combining process-based water footprints with information from input-output techniques. The central theme and proposition is that environmental multi-region input-output analysis (E-MRIO) has a powerful capacity to establish the geography of embodied water, and to complement process-based approaches to WF by expanding their supply-chain coverage. Combining process and input-output information provides valuable information for a diverse set of water planning and water policy objectives. A comprehensive and systematic outline of potential policy applications of E-MRIO (and process analysis methods) is presented.
13. Do the Virtual Water and Water Footprint Perspectives Enhance Policy Discussions?
Author: Wichelns, Dennis; 1; 1International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Publication info: International Journal of Water Resources Development 27. 4 (Dec 2011): 633-645.
Abstract: The notions of virtual water and water footprints are gaining popularity among researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Many of the published articles include statements suggesting that public policies regarding water allocation, agriculture, or international trade should reflect consideration of virtual water and water footprints. Yet those notions lack a scientifically tested conceptual framework and they are too narrowly defined to inform policy decisions in a meaningful way. Consumers, firms, and public officials wishing to improve water resource management need and deserve much better information than is contained in estimates of virtual water and water footprints. A more thoughtful, comprehensive approach is needed to develop policies that will truly improve the management of water and other natural resources, while also enhancing livelihoods.
Assessing Water Footprints Will Not Be Helpful in Improving Water Management or Ensuring Food Security
Author: Wichelns, Dennis; 1; 1International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Publication info: International Journal of Water Resources Development 27. 3 (Sep 2011): 607-619. Subject: Foods; Water Management; Water Resources Development; Water management; Water resources development; food security; Water management; Water resources development; food security; Foods; Water Management; Water Resources Development
15. An Evaluation of China's Water Footprint
Author: Ge, Liqiang; Xie, Gaodi; 1; Zhang, Caixia; Li, Shimei; Qi, Yue; Cao, Shuyan; He, Tingting
Publication info: Water Resources Management 25. 10 (Aug 2011): 2633-2647.
Abstract: The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater consumption that looks not only at direct water consumption of a consumer or producer, also at the indirect water consumption. The water footprint can be regarded as a comprehensive indicator of freshwater resources appropriation, next to the traditional and restricted measure of water withdrawal. Based on the concept and calculating method of water footprint, this paper estimates the water footprint of China in 2007. The result shows that the total water footprint of China is 856.34 10 super(9) m super(3) and the per capita water footprint is 648.11 m super(3)/year. The spatial difference of per capita water footprint is obvious among all provinces of China. Generally, the more developed cities, the southern and coastal provinces have a higher per capita water footprint, lower water footprint intensity and higher efficiency of water consumption, while the North West China has lower water utilization efficiency. China is one of the thirteen water scarce countries in the world and spatial distribution of water resources is non-uniform. In addition to the virtual water trade, government should apply advanced technology and best available management practices, improve the efficiency of water use, reduce virtual water content per unit product, and continue nation-wide readjustment of industrial structure to guarantee an efficient use of limited water resources.